The juvenile justice system is different from the criminal justice system. Read on to learn the basics of juvenile court (also called young offender's court), juvenile cases, and the juvenile court procedures.
Each state has special courts -- usually called juvenile courts -- to deal with minors who have been accused of violating a criminal statute. The proceedings are civil as opposed to criminal. So, instead of being formally charged with a crime, juvenile offenders are accused of committing a delinquent act.
A juvenile case gets started when a prosecutor or probation officer files a civil petition, charging the juvenile with violating a criminal statute and asking that the court determine that the juvenile is delinquent. If the charges are proved and a delinquency determination is made, the juvenile offender comes under the courts broad powers. At that point, the juvenile court has the authority to do what it considers to be in the best interest of the juvenile.
Often, the juvenile court retains legal authority over the minor for a set period of time -- until the juvenile becomes an adult, or sometimes even longer.
To be eligible for juvenile court, a young person must be a considered a "juvenile" under state law. In most states, the maximum age for using juvenile court is 18. In a few states the age is 16 or 17, and in one (Wyoming) the maximum age is set at 19.
States also set lower age limits for juvenile court eligibility. Most states consider children under the age of 7 to be incapable of determining the difference between right and wrong, or forming a "guilty mind." So, children under the age of seven are usually excused from responsibility for acts they commit. Instead, parents may have to pay compensation to anyone victimized by the acts of a very young child. In some cases, the court will find a parent unfit to care for a child who has committed wrongdoing and will place the child with relatives or foster parents. Whether children between the ages of seven and 14 can form a guilty mind is usually left up to the judge. If the judge feels that the child was capable of forming criminal intent, the child will be sent to juvenile court.
Most states regard children 14 and older as capable of forming criminal intent, so the majority of cases involving young people from 14 to 18 years of age are adjudicated in juvenile court. In certain circumstances, a juvenile can be tried in adult criminal court. (To learn more about trying juveniles in adult criminal court, see When Juveniles Are Tried in Adult Criminal Court.)
Not all cases heard in juvenile court are delinquency cases (those involving the commission of a crime). There are two other types of cases: dependency cases and status offenses. Different procedures typically apply to all three types of juvenile court cases.
Juvenile delinquency cases. These cases involve minors who have committed crimes -- meaning that if the crime had been committed by an adult, the matter would be tried in regular criminal court. But the procedures in juvenile court differ significantly from those in adult criminal court. (To learn more about procedures in juvenile delinquency cases, see Juvenile Delinquency: What Happens in a Juvenile Case?)
Juvenile dependency cases. Cases involving minors who are abused or neglected by their parents or guardians -- called "juvenile dependency" cases -- are also heard in juvenile court. In a juvenile dependency case, the judge will ultimately decide whether or not a minor should be removed from a problematic home environment.
Cases involving status offenses. A status offense is a violation that only applies to minors. Examples include truancy (skipping school), curfew violations, running away, and underage drinking. (To learn more about status offenses, see Juvenile Law: Status Offenses.)
Roughly half of all juvenile arrests are made for theft, simple assault, drug abuse, disorderly conduct, and curfew violations, according to the federal Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. In an average year, only about 3% of cases heard in juvenile court involved violent offenses like robbery, rape, murder, and aggravated assault.
Historically, the vast majority of juvenile court cases have involved male offenders. But the number of girls entering the juvenile justice system has been on the rise in recent years -- in an average year, girls accounted for 27% of all juveniles facing proceedings in juvenile courts in the U.S.
When a juvenile is suspected of violating a criminal statute, the procedures are very different from those used in adult criminal court. Most significantly, the police, prosecutors, juvenile court intake officials, and juvenile court judges all have broad discretion to take more informal steps in handling the case. As a result, many young offenders never reach the point of a formal adjudicatory hearing. (To learn about the process in a typical juvenile case -- including options for resolution along the way -- see Juvenile Delinquency: What Happens in a Juvenile Case?)
Likewise, the constitutional rights of juveniles are different from those of adults who have been accused of committing a crime. For example, although juveniles have the right to an attorney at an adjudicatory hearing, in most states they do not have the right to have their case heard by a jury. (See Do juveniles have a right to trial by jury? To learn more about the due process rights of juvenile defendants, see Constitutional Rights in Juvenile Cases.)
Some juvenile cases are transferred to adult court in a procedure called a "waiver." Typically, juvenile cases that are subject to waiver involve serious offenses, like rape or murder, or juveniles who have been in trouble before. Juveniles have a right to a hearing to determine if their case should be transferred to adult court. (To learn more about waivers and waiver hearings, see When Juveniles Are Tried in Adult Criminal Court.)
Juvenile courts have a broad range of sentencing options (usually called "disposition orders") if they find that a juvenile is delinquent. Courts can confine the juvenile in a variety of ways -- from sending the minor to a traditional juvenile detention facility to placing the juvenile under house arrest. More importantly, juvenile courts can order a whole range of punishments that do not involve confinement -- including counseling, curfews, and probation. (To learn more about possible dispositions in juvenile court cases, see Juvenile Court Sentencing Options.)
For more information about juvenile court, the rights of minors in juvenile proceedings, and how to help if you are the parent of a minor who is in trouble with the law, get The Criminal Law Handbook: Know Your Rights, Survive the System, by Paul Bergman and Sara Berman (Nolo). If you need a lawyer experienced with the juvenile justice system, you can turn to Nolo's trusted Lawyer Directory to find an attorney near you.